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How to do warm-up before training

Many beginners, as well as those who have been “in the subject” of fitness, health running, bodybuilding or strength sports, often neglect to perform the introductory part of the lesson. But in vain. Warm up before training is important and functionally necessary. It directly affects the effectiveness and safety of the training process, and also accelerates the speed of recovery after it.

Why do I need a warm-up?

Warm up exercises prepare the body for the upcoming loads: warm the muscles, joints and ligaments, “turn on” the blood depot of the liver and spleen, and ventilate the lungs. They also prepare the heart for the upcoming large amounts of contractions per minute, and the nervous system for accelerated transmission of impulses, lead to the «starting readiness» of the endocrine glands. During the warm-up, blood oxygen saturation increases, thereby cellular metabolism is brought to the “full alert” mode.

The habit of warming up before the training should be brought to automatism. The warm-up will provide a positive psychological attitude, allow you to perform amplitude and / or strength exercises without the risk of injuries — sprains and tears of the connective tissue of the tendons and ligaments, subluxations and dislocations of the joints. It will prevent from passing out and will make impossible the occurrence of pain in the right or left hypochondrium.

Kinds of workouts

What the top bodybuilding blog will consist of a set of exercises for warming up and how long it will depend on the diversity of the upcoming workout, time of day, physical fitness and current state of health. There are such types of workouts:

1. General warm-up:

  • warming up joints and muscles — dynamic exercises;
  • stretching — isometric exercises;
  • pacemaking — 3-5 minutes run, work on cyclic simulators, jumping rope;

2. Special preliminary training:

  • for example, a lead-in approach (series, set), which should be performed 7 to 10 times, with a lift of 30-50% of the weight of the maximum. 

Basic exercises for warming up

Preparatory exercises are classified as general developmental. They are made regardless of where and what they will do: train at home, on the street or in the gym, swing or do stretching, load yourself with plyometrics or some kind of fitness aerobics, run, walk with Scandinavian sticks, ride a bicycle, swim .

The gold standard for starting a workout is a 1-2 minute cardio warm-up: light running and / or several intense types of walking on the spot.

Gymnastics for joints

A classics of the genre is considered to be the articular whirlwind workout from kung fu. Performed, 8-16 times in each direction, circular movements:

  • toe of the foot (standing on one leg);
  • closed knees (feet together, the body tilted, palms in focus on the knees, you need to crouch a little while moving);
  • open knees, asymmetrically inwards and outwards (legs shoulder-width apart, palms on knees bent 45 degrees);
  • pelvis, and to increase the amplitude, you can use the “shoulder girdle” as a “counterweight”;
  • shoulders
  • at the elbows, making the rotation of the forearms mirror (arms to the sides);
  • with brushes or fists (arms forward or to the sides);
  • head (feet shoulder width apart).

These simple movements will warm the deep ligaments and increase the production of synovial fluid, which will protect the cartilage surface of the joints from deformation.

Muscle warming

Following the joints, warm the muscle fibers and ligaments. To do this, perform dynamic general developmental exercises, the bulk of which are turns, inclinations, lunges and squats.

Muscular warm-up before strength training or another type of training is designed to increase the activity of physiological systems that are responsible for the work of muscles, and increase temperature homeostasis in them from 34 to 37.5 ° C. It should be performed before sweat, but without fatigue. The pulse at the end of this part of the warm-up should not exceed 130 beats / sec.

General developmental exercises are the same for all sports, but the number of exercises for a particular muscle group still depends on the work ahead. For example, before running, you should pay more attention to your legs, and before power fitness for deadlift — your back.

Stretching before workout

Stretching is necessary not only to increase the elasticity of muscles, ligaments and tendons. It enhances the interaction of muscle fibers and establishes intermuscular coordination.

In contrast to the joint warm-up, where martial artists practice working out the joints from the bottom up, in stretching before training, they advise you to move from head to toe. At the same time, it is recommended to make several different ones or increase the number of repetitions of the same exercise for parts of the body that will experience the greatest load.

The order of the isometric (stress followed by stretching) warm-up:

  • trapezoid — turns, tilts of the head;
  • large and small pectoral, and then long back muscles — work at a vertical support;
  • triceps;
  • back delta beam;
  • lateral muscles of the trunk and limbs — tilting to the side with the raising of the arm;
  • short and long biceps heads (back surface) of the thigh;
  • quadriceps;
  • gluteal muscles;
  • calves and Achilles tendon.

Warm up before training in the gym finishes with ballistic swings, difficult coordination jumps, 3-minute cardio load. After a run of medium intensity, you need to restore breathing, and you can begin training.

Warm up before running

Most often, they forget or neglect to warm up, considering it an extra waste of time, just before running training. However, such training is necessary, especially if a cross-country run is planned. Warm-up before running will prevent injuries to the knees and ankles, prepare the heart, lungs, walls of blood and lymph vessels for the upcoming loads, «save» from the occurrence of colic in the side.

The order of exercises before the running load is different from the warm-ups that are done before other types of training. Athletic trainers advise HLS advocates to stick to the following pattern:

  1. Walking 400 m — 200 m calm step + 200 m accelerated.
  2. Mahi — hands to the side \ cross in front of you. 12-16 times.
  3. Changing the position of the hands — one hand above, the other below. 12-16 times.
  4. Tilts the body to the side and then twist. Hands in a comfortable position. 10 times.
  5. Slow bends forward, hunched back and trying to touch the ground with your palms (5 times) + 1 bend back, resting your palms in the lower back, without tipping the head back. Repeat the cycle 3 times.
  6. Classic half-squats with the movement of the hands forward, without lifting the heels off the ground. 10 times.
  7. Lifting on socks (10 times) + clockwise and counterclockwise rotation of the closed knees, crouching, palms on the knees (several times in each direction). Repeat the cycle 3 times.
  8. Walking lunges for stretching calves and Achilles tendon without lifting his heels off the ground. 30-60 sec

You need to start a training run slowly, and reach the desired speed after 0.5-1 minutes.

Pre-workout home workout

It is clear that doing a warm-up at home, and then going or going to the gym is absurd. True, this option is acceptable before running training when it rains outside. But since houses usually do some kind of rhythmic aerobics, stretching, gymnastics with dumbbells or yoga, the warm-up before training at home can be favorably different from the traditional standards used in the gym or on the street.

The warm-up before stretching or other home training can be like this:

  • 90 seconds — walking on the buttocks: forward, backward, sideways, “around fixed heels”;
  • 75 sec. — sitting on the floor: socks on yourself \ from yourself + rotation;
  • 2 times for each leg — lying flat on the back on the forearms: quick drawing of zigzags down / up, stretched toe of the bent leg, touching the floor to the left / right of the motionless;
  • 5 times in succession in dynamics + according to the 1st statics for 15-30 seconds — lying on your back, arms to the sides: twisting the lower back by touching the floor with a bent knee;
  • 6 times — from a supine position, palms resting near the chest: deflection of the back and neck by straightening the arms;
  • 3 repetitions in each direction — from the knee-wrist rest with a rounded spine: straightening the back and leading to the side of the opposite arm and leg;
  • 75 sec — stretching calves and Achilles against the wall;
  • 10 times — movements from an emphasis sitting bent over an emphasis standing bent, at the end linger with straight knees for 15-30 seconds;
  • 6 times, alternately — tilting to the side, clutching your fingers with a «bear lock»;
  • 10-15 times — squats;
  • 3 minutes — intense dance moves, jumps and jumps.

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